LINCOLNSHIRE/LINKISHEERE GLOSSARY

Introduction

This glossary was compiled as a means of examining the dialect words included with the Legends of the Lincolnshire Carrs as collected by M C Balfour and published in Folklore in 1891 and consequently is limited in the scope of the Lincolnshire dialect words contained within it.
Balfour was living briefly in Redbourne in the north of the county at the time of collecting the legends, an area where there is a strong Yorkshire influence on the folklore and dialect, and so I have also consulted Yorkshire glossaries and included these results.
Within this glossary it is noticeable that some words appear to be from Scotland but this is likely to be the result of the influence of not migration but also the  thriving herring fishing industry that annually travelled around the coast from the East Coast as far as Lowestoft (Widdowson 1978:49).
Please also note that this, and other parts of this section of my website are also work in progress and subject to change as new research is carried out!
A forward slash is used between words to denote either alternative spellings by Balfour or within other Lincolnshire or Yorkshire glossaries.

A

'A' is often used for ‘I’ noted Campion, particularly in the Lincolnshire Marshes (1976, p. 29). Sims-Kimbrey noted that a used for one, he she, I or they (1996, p. 2).
A DEAL – a lot (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 75).
ABOON – above (Good 1973, p. 15, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 3, Addy 1888, p. 1 Peacock 1877, p. 1, 1889, p. 2).
ABOOT – about (Elder 1997, p. 44).
ADDLE – to earn (Elder 1997, p. 44, Good 1973, p. 15, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 4, Addy 1888, p. 2, Peacock 1877, p. 3, 1889, p. 3, Sutton 1881, p. 115).
AFORE/AFWORE/AFOOR – before (Elder 1997, p. 44, Good 1973, p. 15 Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 5.Peacock 1877, p. 2, 1889, p. 4). pronounced 'afore' in Yorkshire (Morris 1892, Addy 1888, p. 2). Campion noted how the prefix a was often used instead of be as shown in afore, ahind, atwixt (1976, p. 30).
AGEAN/AGEN/AGIN – again (Good 1973, p. 15, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 5, Elder 1997, p. 45 Peacock 1877, p. 2). Against – by the side of, close to (Addy 1888, p. 2, Peacock 1877, p. 2, 1889, p. 5).
AGUR/AGER/AGA/AIGRE – Ague (marsh fever) (Elder 1997, p. 45).
AHINT/AHIND – behind (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 6, Peacock 1877, p. 3, 1889, p. 6) also used in Yorkshire (Morris 1892).
AIN – own (Elder 1997, p. 46).
AIRMS – arms (Elder 1997, p. 46).
AISY – easy (Elder 1997, p. 46).
ALLUS – always (Good 1973, p. 16, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 7, Elder 1997, p. 47) .In North West Lincs - ALUS/ALUST (Peacock 1877, p. 5, 1889, p. 10). Yorkshire - ALLYS (Addy 1888, p. 4). Strangers' Share contains the word ALLERS – this is also likely to be always.
AN'ALL/ANN'ALL – and all, also, as well (Stennett 2006, p. 21, Addy 1888, p. 4), besides (Peacock 1877, p. 5, 1889, p. 11).
ARSY-VARSY, ARSEY-VARSEY – Topsy-turvy, head over heels, wrong end first (Elder 1997, p. 49,Good 1973, p. 16, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 10, Brogden 1866, p. 15, Peacock 1877, p. 7, 1889, p. 14).
ARTER – after (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 10).
ATWEEN – between (Good 1973, p. 16, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 12, Peacock 1877, p. 9, 1889, p. 16).
AUD/AU'D – old (Elder 1997, p. 51, Peacock 1877, p. 9, 1889, p. 17).
AX/AXE/AXED – ask, asked (Good 1973, p. 17, Addy 1888, p. 7, Peacock 1877, p. 10, 1889, p. 19).

B

BABBY – baby (Good 1973, p. 17, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 15, Addy 1888, p. 7, Peacock 1877, p. 10, 1889, p. 20).
BACKERDS – backwards (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 16).
BADDER NOR IVER (badder than ever). BADDER – worse (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 17. Peacock 1877, p. 12, 1889, p. 24). Bad is commonly used as a word meaning difficult (Elder 1997, p. 54).
BAIRNS – young children (Sims-Kimbrey 1996-17, Elder 1997, p. 54, Good 1973, p. 18, Addy 1888, p. 9, Peacock 1877, p. 13, 1889, p. 25, Sutton 1881, p. 115).
BE'ENT/BEANT – won't, am not, are not, is not (Sims-Kimbrey 1996-22, Elder 1997, p. 59, Good 1973, p. 19, Peacock 1877, p. 18, 1889, p. 35).
BEGOX/BEGOCK – a form of imprecation (Peacock 1877, p. 20, 1889, p. 39).
BESOM – a long handled broom for stable or outdoor work (Brogden 1866, p. 23, Peacock 1877, p. 22, 1889, p. 44).
BET – beaten, won (Good 1973, p. 20, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 26, Peacock 1877, p. 23, 1889, p. 45).
BIT – little, short, small (Good 1973, p. 20, Peacock 1877, p. 25, 1889, p. 50).
BO'ANS/BOANS – bones (Elder 1997, p. 67, Peacock 1877, p. 30, 1889, p. 59).
BOBBERIES/BOBBERY – disturbance (Brogden 1888, p. 27, Peacock 1877, p. 30, 1889, p. 60).
BOGGART/BOGGARD – a hobgoblin. Something of an unearthly nature (Peacock 1877, p. 31, 1889, p. 61). Ghost or apparition in Yorkshire (Addy 1888, p. 21).
BOGLES/BOGGLES – a ghost or apparition (Elder 1997, p. 68, Peacock 1877, p. 31, 1889, p. 61, 1897, p. 377) or for a wetlands goblin (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 33). To take fright, hesitate (Addy 1888, p. 21).
BOG PAD – pad is a footpath in Lincolnshire so this is a footpath over the boglands (Elder 1997, p. 171, Good 1974, p. 58, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 217).
BONNY – well in health (Peacock 1877, p. 32, 1889, p. 64).
BORN FOOL – unwise person (Peacock 1877, p. 33, 1889, p. 65).
BOTHERSOME – troublesome (Peacock 1877, p. 33, 1889, p. 66).
BRAINED – hit over the head? BRAIN-PAN is skull (Peacock 1889, p. 69).
BRAT – child (Elder 1997, p. 71, Good 1973, p. 23), a dirty or ill mannered-child (Peacock 1877, p. 35, 1889, p. 70).
BRENNIN' must mean ‘burning’ but it should just be ‘burnin’ in Lincolnshire (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 46). Brend, brun – burn – Sheffield (Addy 1888, p. 25).
BRISTLIN'- this word is found in Fred the fool to describe the behaviour of someone who is showing their 'bristles' like a hedgehog. The term normally means brisk, as of the wind (Peacock 1877, p. 38).
BROODLE – to fondle, caress, cherish (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 41, Elder 1997, p. 73, Good 1973, p. 23, Peacock 1877, p. 39, 1889, p. 76).
BROWT – brought (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 41).
BRUSTIN'/BRUSSEN – bursting (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 42, Elder 1997, p. 73, Good 1973, p. 23,Addy 1888, p. 29). BRUSSEN – bursting (Peacock 1877, p. 39, 1889, p. 76), BRUST or BUST – to burst (Peacock 1877, p. 39, 1889, p. 77, 1889, p. 84, Sutton 1881, p. 115).
BUNDELT/BUNDLED – to remove hurriedly (Peacock 1877, p. 41, 1889, p. 81).
BY AND BY – After a time, shortly (Peacock 1889, p. 86).


C

CANNA BOIDE – can’t abide (Elder 1997, p. 43).
CARR LANDS – Carr is low land generally boggy; or peat-moor, fen or mere (Elder 1997, p. 79). ‘car’ is derived from ‘Ker’ the Norse for marsh (Wheeler 1868). Car is low unenclosed land, subject to flooding (Peacock 1877, p. 47, 1889, p. 93).
CEP – except (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 54).
CHILDER – children (Elder 1997, p. 84, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 57, Addy 1888, p. 40, Brogden 1866, p. 40, Peacock 1877, p. 55, 1889, p. 109).
CHO'CH – church. Was pronounced CHECH in NW Lincolnshire (Peacock 1877, p. 58, 1889, p. 114).
CLAM – to starve (Addy 1888, p. 43). CLAMMED/CLEMMED – parched with thirst (Peacock 1889, p. 115).
CLAPPERDATCH – this expression may relate to clapper which was used to frighten birds (Peacock 1877, p. 59, 1889, p. 116), or to a lot of chattering as CLAPPER is used in Yorkshire for the tongue (Addy 1888, p. 44). CLACK meant worthless talk (Peacock 1889, p. 114). It could however have been CAT-BLASH which refers to a weak, thin drink but also meant a foolish conversation or weak argument (Elder 1997, p. 80).
CLEAN – quite, entirely (Elder 1997, p. 87, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 61, Addy 1888, p. 44, Peacock 1889, p. 118).
CLEM – suffer from hunger (Elder 1997, p. 88) to freeze (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 61).
CLOSIN'S/CLOASIN'S/CLOASEN – an enclosure, whether grass or under plough as distinguished from an unenclosed field (Elder 1997;89). Good lists CLOSENS as fields (1973, p. 28). and Sims-Kimbrey as close, fields or pastures (1996, p. 62) and Peacock CLOASIN – an enclosure (Peacock 1877, p. 62, 1889, p. 122).
CLOUTS – working clothes, rag or cloth (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 62, Elder 1997, p. 89, Brogden 1866, p. 44, P, p. 63).
CONEY/CONY – rabbit (Elder 1997, p. 93, Peacock 1877, p. 68, 1889, p. 134).
COOM/COOMED/COME – arrive, arrived (Good 1973, p. 29).
COOS – cows (Elder 1997, p. 93).
COT – caught though this should be COTCH in NW Lincs (Peacock 1889, p. 186).
COTTERED/COTTED – entangled, matted, knotted particularly referring to hair (Elder 1997, p. 94, Good 1973, p. 30, Brogden 1866, p. 47, Peacock 1877, p. 69, 1889, p. 137). COTS – knotted wool from sheep (Sutton 1881, p. 116, Addy 1888, p. 52, Peacock 1889, p. 186).
COULD/COWLD – cold. Peacock lists this as COUD (1877, p. 70).
CRADDLED/CRODDLED – probably means curdled or stewed (Elder 1997, p. 98).
CRAPPELIN – lame, decrepit (Brogden 1866, p. 48,). CRAPPELY – lame, decrepit (Peacock 1877, p. 72).
CREED MEAL/CREED WHEAT – wheat simmered until soft and tender for making frumenty (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 68, Peacock 1877, p. 74).
CROODED/CROODLE– to nestle or snuggle, to sit or lie down together to obtain warmth (Elder 1997, p. 98 Good 1973, p. 30, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 69,Addy 1888, p. 55, Brogden 1866, p. 49). crouching into as small a space as possible (Morris 1892). CRUDDLE – to lie close together for warmth (Peacock 1877, p. 76, 1889, p. 148).
CROOM'LED – crumbled, crumpled (Brogden 1866, p. 49). CRUM/CRUMIN' – crumble (Peacock 1889, p. 149).
CRYSOMS/CHRISOM/CHRISLOM – delicate, weakly and frail, an enfeebled person who is unable to do any kind of work (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 70, Brogden 1866, p. 49). CRYSON – A person disfigured by dress (Peacock 1877, p. 76, 1889, p. 149). In Yorkshire this term is used for an old fogy, an old fright (Addy 1891, p. 12).
CUDN'T – is found in the Legends but should be written as 'couldn’t' (Peacock 1886).

D

DARKLINS – just twilight (Elder 1997, p. 102, Good 1973, p. 32, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 74, Brogden 1866, p. 52, Peacock 1877, p. 80, 1889, p. 157).
DARTER – daughter (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 743).
DE'AD/DEEAD –  Dead (Sims-Kimbrey 1997, p. 75). DEH'D – dead (Peacock 1889, p. 160).
DEAL – much, a great quantity (Peacock 1889, p. 161).
DEARY/DEARIE – of small size (Elder 1997, p. 103).
DELVE – to work hard – DELPH is the name for a broad ditch or v shaped drain, or for water running away and DELPIN is cutting delphs (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 76,Elder 1997, p. 103, Good 1973, p. 32) to dig (Peacock 1877, p. 83).
DIDDLE-DADDLES found in Flying Childer is of uncertain origin. Dilly-dally was found in Sheffield and NW Lincolnshire – to procrastinate, to fool away time (Addy 1888, p. 62, p. 85).
DOON – down (Peacock 1886, p. 6).
DINNA/DISNA – is found in the Legends but should be 'didn’t' (Peacock 1886).
DOORSIL/DOOR SILL – threshold (Elder 1997, p. 105, Brogden 1866, p. 56, Peacock 1877, p. 89, 1889, p. 172) also used in Yorkshire (Morris 1892).
DOORSTUD/DOORSTEAD – door step, place where the door stands (Peacock 1877, p. 89, 1889, p. 172, Addy 1888, p. 64).
DRAWED – drawn, drew (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 83).
DRUV – driven, drove (Peacock 1889, p. 182).
DUTCHIES – Dutchmen – The man who was hired to oversee the drainage work was Cornelius Vermuyden from Holland. He brought with him other Dutchmen to assist with the work.
DWINED/DWYNE – dwindled, fade gradually (Elder 1997, p. 108, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 86, Peacock 1877, p. 95, 1889, p. 185, Sutton 1881, p. 117).
DYKE – ditch or drain (Peacock 1889, p. 185).


E

EFTER – after (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 91).
ENDLONG – go directly forward, all along, all the time, continuously (Peacock 1877, p. 98, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 92). This could be the use of 'Endlins' in the Legends.
EYNE/EYEN/EIN/EYN/EEN – eyes (Elder 1997, p. 109,Addy 1888, p. 69). EEN/EEZ – eyes (Peacock 1877, p. 97, 1889, p. 189).



F

FAATHER – father (Peacock 1877, p. 100, 1889, p. 194).
FACKS – could this be fecks – Yorkshire term for the largest part of anything (Morris 1892). or facts?
FAIR – absolutely, level, even (Elder 1997, p. 111, Good 1973, p. 35), quite big (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 95, Peacock 1877, p. 100, 1889, p. 194).
FAIRY RING – a circle in grass believed to be made by fairies dancing (Peacock 1877, p. 100, 1889, p. 195).
FATTED/FAT – to fatten (Peacock 1889, p. 198).
FAUSE – false, cunning (Elder 1997, p. 112, Addy 1888, p. 72, Peacock 1889, p. 198).
FETCH – a trick, a device, an imposition (Elder 1997, p. 113, Addy 1888, p. 73, Brogden 1866, p. 68). A fetch may sometimes be a crisis apparition if the person seen is experiencing great mental distress. It is the image of a person who is dying or who has recently died that appears to the friend or relative of the deceased. The fetch is not that rare an occurrence. However much more common is for a person to 'know' for certain that someone with whom they are close has 'passed on' (Real British Ghosts website).
FETT – to secure or tie firmly (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 100). FETTED is used in Tiddymun but the root of this is obscure.
FEYTHER – father (Peacock 1886, p. 66).
FIRED OOP could be linked to fire-fanged – a reference to hot tempered men (Elder 1997, p. 114).
FLINGED – throw, overturn (Brogden 1866, p. 71).. FLING – throw aside (Peacock 1889, p. 210).
FLIT/FLITTED – move from one place to another (Peacock 1889, p. 210).
FLOUTIN/FLOUTER/FLOWTER – to say evil things to or about anyone, to scold (Elder 1997, p. 115, Addy 1888, p. 77).FLITE – to mock, to sneer at (Peacock 1877, p. 107, 1889, p. 211).
FLUSTER/FLUSKER – excited, hurried (Good 1973, p. 36, Brogden 1866, p. 72, Peacock 1877, p. 108), like chickens in a panic (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 106). FLUZ – to crumple, to ruffle (Addy 1888, p. 78).
FO'AK/FOOAK – folk (Addy 1888, p. 78, Peacock 1889, p. 213).
FOND-LIKE (found in Tiddy Mun) may mean gentle as FOND refers to being foolishly affectionate (Elder 1997, p. 116). or foolish, half-witted (Peacock 1877, p. 109, 1889, p. 215).
FOR'ARD/FORR'ARD/FORRUD – forward (Stennett 2006, p. 24, Addy 1888, p. 79).
FORSPELL – put a spell on/bewitch.
FOWER – four (Peacock 1889, p. 218).
FOX COVER – fox covert.
FRAE/FRA – from (Stennett 2006, p. 24, Peacock 1877, p. 111, 1889, p. 219).
FRATCHED – fratchy is a Lincolnshire term for fretful, peevish, restless (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 109, Addy 1888, p. 81). This is also a Yorkshire term for quarrelsome (Morris 1892) and known to mean unfriendly in Lincolnshire (Brogden 1866, p. 73).
FROIGHTED – frightened though this would be FRIT in NW Lincs, the 'oi' is more East Coast of Lincolnshire (Peacock1889, p. 221).
FRO'S must mean ‘for as’ but it is not found in Lincolnshire or Yorkshire.
FUND/FUN – found (Elder 1997, p. 118, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 110, Peacock 187, p. 113, 1889, p. 223).
FUR – for or far (Peacock 1889, p. 223).
FURDER – further (Good 1973, p. 37, Peacock, p. 1877, p. 112, 1889, p. 223).


G

 GAIN/GAINHAND – near (Elder 1997, p. 119, Addy 1888, p. 84, Sutton 1881, p. 117), nigh to (Peacock 1877, p. 113, 1889, p. 226).
GAIN – pretty, very, nearly (Elder 1997, p. 119). (Balfour has spelt this as ' gey').
GARTH – yard, stackyard (Elder 1997, p. 120, Peacock 1877, p. 115, 1889, p. 229)  a small paddock near a farm house (Morris 1892, Peacock) a homestead, farm (Good 1973, p. 38, Peacock 1889, p. 229).
GEYAN/GEAN – near (Peacock 1877, p. 117, 1889, p. 232).
GIB/GIBBERED – may be related to gibberish – nonsensical talk (Brogden 1866, p. 80, Addy 1888, p. 88).
GI'N/GI'EN/GIN/GEN – given (Peacock 1877, p. 118, 1889, p. 232, Addy 1888, p. 88).
GIRN/GERN – grin (Morris 1892, Good 1973, p. 39, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 119, Peacock 1889, p. 233).
GIT – to get (Good 1973, p. 39, Peacock 1877, p. 118, 1889, p. 236, Elder 1997, p. 121).
GLOWER/GLOAR/GLORE – to stare vacantly or gloomily (Peacock 1877, p. 119) to stare surprisingly or angrily (Sutton 1881, p. 117).
GOB/GOB-HOLE – a term used for mouth (Elder 1997, p. 122, Good 1973, p. 40, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 122, P, p. 120, Addy 1888, p. 91, Peacock 1889, p. 239).
GOD'E'EN – Good evening.
GOTTEN – possess, obtain, got (Elder 1997, p. 123).
GRAN'THER – grandfather.
GRAT/GREET/GRETE – To shed tears, to weep (Addy 1888, p. 96). A Yorkshire term described by Morris in 1892 as being an “old word...well-nigh obsolete, but it is known by many old people”.
GROW'D/GROWED/GROWD – grew (Good 1973, p. 40, Peacock 1877, p. 125, 1889, p. 249).
GY'ARDEN– garden (Elder 1997, p. 120). GAADIN – garden (Peacock 1877, p. 114).


H

HAPPED/HAPT OOP/HAP-UP – wrapped up, covered up (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 135, Addy 1888, p. 102, Good 1973, p. 42. Peacock 1877, p. 129). HAPPING – covering (Peacock 1889, p. 257).
HARK – Harken (Elder 1997, p. 129).
HAWIVER – however (Brogden 1866, p. 93).
HEERD – heard (Good 1973, p. 43). pronounced HIH'RD (Peacock 1889, p. 24).
HEVENT/HEVNA – haven't (Good 1973, p. 43, Brogden 1866, p. 96). HEV – have (Peacock 1877, p. 134, 1889, p. 269).
HIRINGS – statute fairs for hiring servants (Peacock 1889, p. 272).
HISSEN – himself (Elder 1997, p. 132).
HOAM – home (Peacock 1877, p. 135, 1889, p. 272).
HOO – how (Elder 1997, p. 134). Peacock noted that this pronunciation was rare (1889, p. 276).
HOOSE/HOOS – common North Lincs pronunciation of House (Elder 1997, p. 134, Peacock 1877, p. 138, 1889, p. 277).
HOUT/HOOT – A Yorkshire expression denoting incredulity on hearing some statement, and corresponding to 'nonsense 'surely not,' &c. (Morris 1892).
HUNNERDS should be HUNDERDS – hundreds (Peacock 1889, p. 283).
HURTED/HURTEN – hurt (Elder 1997, p. 137).


I

ILL – bad (P, p. 141-142, Morris 1892).
INNARD – the intestines (Good 1973, p. 46, Addy 1888, p. 116, Peacock 1877, p. 142, 1889, p. 287).
IVERY/IVVRY – every (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 156). IVVER – ever (Peacock 1877, p. 144).

K

KEN/KENNED – East Lincolnshire for ‘to know’ (Good 1973, p. 48, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 165, Brogden 1866, p. 110). Also used in Yorkshire (Morris 1892).
KEP – kept (Good 1973, p. 48), or keep  (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 164).
KIRKGARTH – churchyard. Peacock said this word was obsolete (1877, p. 149, 1889, p. 303).
KNOWED/KNEWED – did know (Good 1973, p. 49). KNAWED – knew (Peacock 1889, p. 305).


L

LAFFT – laugh is pronounced ‘laf’ in Lincolnshire (Oxley 1941, p. 105).
LANG – long – Yorkshire term (Morris 1892).
LANG SYNE (found in Tiddy Mun). Scottish for 'long since.'
LANTHORN should read LANTREN/LANTRON – lantern (Peacock 1889, p. 313).
LAWKS/LAWS – explanation of surprise (Good 1973, p. 50, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 174, Brogden 1866, p. 116). as in Lawks-a-massy – Lord have mercy (Elder 1997, p. 149, Widdowson 1984, p. 115). LAWKS YOU NOW! and LAWSY ME/LAWSI'ME were also both used in Lincolnshire the latter meaning 'Lord save me' (Peacock 1877, p. 154, 1889, p. 316, Addy 1888, p. 130).
LEASTWISE/LEASTWAYS – at least (Elder 1997, p. 149, Addy 1888, p. 131, P, p. 155).
LIMPELTY-LOBELTY – LIMBER – flexible, pliant (Addy 1888, p. 135, P, p. 158)., LOB – to walk awkwardly (Addy 1888, p. 137).
LISPIT (in Tiddy Mun) – does not appear to be the Lincolnshire or Yorkshire term for listen – it should be 'listen' (Peacock 1886).
LOAN/LOANING – A lane, a by-road, a road – a Yorkshire term (Morris 1892).
LOIKE MAIN (like meant), expected to (Elder 1997, p. 151).


M

 MA– me (Elder 1997, p. 157, Elder 1997, p. 73).
MAIN – a lot (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 184), very, greatly (Brogden 1866, p. 122, Peacock 1877, p. 163, 1889, p. 337, Morris 1892).
MAPPEN/MAY'APPEN/MAY HAPPEN – perhaps (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 187, Peacock 1889, p. 345).
MAZZED/MAZZLED/MAZEDED/MAZZARDED – bewildered, stupefied, confused (Elder 1997, p. 157, Good 1973, p. 53, Oxley 1941, p. 73, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 189).. MAZY – dizzy, giddy (Addy 1888, p. 146). MAZZEN/MAZZLE – stupify, make dizzy (Peacock 1877, p. 168). MAZE – frighten, astonish (Peacock 1889, p. 345).. MOYSED – amazed, bewildered (Peacock 1889, p. 358).
MEBBE – maybe, perhaps (Good 1973, p. 53).
MEDDLE – interfere (Peacock 1889, p. 347).
MEK – make (Elder 1997, p. 158, Peacock 1889, p. 347).
MIND – to call to memory (Elder 1997, p. 159, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 191, Peacock 1877, p. 171, 1889, p. 352).
MISLOIKE/MISLIKE – dislike (Peacock 1889, p. 353).
MOOCKY could mean MOKEY – Misty and grey and dull and muggy (Sims-Kimbrey 1996-194). MOAKY – dull, hazy; said of the weather (Peacock 1877, p. 172,1889, p. 354) or an alternative spelling of MUCKY – dirty (Peacock 1889, p. 359).
MOOLS – not common in Lincolnshire but is found in Yorkshire as a term used to mean moulds, earth. Mold is the East Lincolnshire term for earth, soil (Good 1974, p. 54, Brogden 1888, p. 128). Peacock has this listed as MOHDS (Peacock 1889, p. 355).
MORT – lot of (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 195).
MOWT – might (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 196).
MUCK – mud (Elder  1997, p. 161, Good 1973, p. 54, Peacock 1877, p. 174, 1889, p. 358).
MUN – must (Good 1973, p. 55, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 198, Peacock 1877, p. 175, 1889, p. 361) also used in Yorkshire (Morris 1892, Addy 1888, p. 154).
MUTHER – mother (Peacock 1886, p. 66). Balfour includes this as 'mither'.

 

N

NAYTHER/NAAITHER/NAUTHER – neither (Good 1973, p. 56, Peacock, p. 1877, p. 177, 1889, p. 363,365).
NAT'RALLY – Naturally is pronounced NATLY/NATTLY in Lincolnshire (Good 1973, p. 55, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 202, Peacock 1877, p. 176, 1889, p. 363).
NATTY – tidy, neat, trim (Good 1973, p. 55, Peacock, p. 1877, p. 177, 1889, p. 364 177,Addy 1888, p. 156).
NAW/NAY/NAAY – no (Elder 1997, p. 164).
NIGH – near (Elder 1997, p. 165, Peacock 1877, p. 179).
NIVER/NIVVER – Lincolnshire pronunciation of never (Good 1973, p. 56) also Sheffield (Addy 1888, p. 159).
NOBBUT/NOBUT – nothing but, only(Elder 1997, p. 165, Good 1973, p. 56, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 206, Peacock 1877, p. 180, 1889, p. 372) also Sheffield (Addy 1888, p. 159).
NONE SO – not so (Elder 1997, p. 165).
NOO – now (Elder 1997, p. 165).
NOR – than (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 207,Peacock 1877, p. 181, 1889, p. 375).
NOWT – nothing (Good 1973, p. 57, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 207, Peacock 1877, p. 181) also Sheffield (Addy 1888, p. 161). Peacock later listed this as NOHT (1889, p. 374).


O

O’AN SEL should read as own sen – myself (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 215).
ON – of (Elder 1997, p. 168).
OOT – out (Peacock 1877, p. 184.1889;387) also pronunciation used in Yorkshire (Morris 1892).
OP'UM – opium
O’ TH’ SLY – on the sly is a term that was found in the North including Yorkshire.
OWD/OHD– old (Good 1973, p. 58, Addy 1888, p. 167, Peacock 1877, p. 185, 1889, p. 382).
OWER/OHER – over (Good 1973, p. 58, Elder 1997, p. 169, Peacock 1877, p. 186, 1889, p. 383).
OWT/OUGHT – anything (Elder 1997, p. 169, Peacock 1877, p. 186, 1889, p. 389, Morris 1892, Addy 1888, p. 168).


P

PAD – path (Peacock 1889, p. 392, Sutton 1881, p. 119).
PEEWIT – lapwing (Peacock 1889, p. 49,399).
PINE – starve (Peacock 1889, p. 406).
PORE should be spelt POOR – of bad quality or thin, emaciated (Peacock 1889, p. 414).
POTHER – bother, a bustle (Brogden 1866, p. 154, Peacock 1889, p. 415).
POTTLE – Middle English/Old French name for a small pot or a tankard though should this be PITCHER (Peacock 1889, p. 409).
PRICKY OTCHIN -  Hedgehog (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 232). also PRICKLY OTCHEN (Peacock 1889, p. 414, 1877, p. 198).
PURTIEST should this be PRATTIEST (Peacock 1889, p. 417).
PYWIPE – lapwing (Peacock 1889, p. 422).

 

Q

QUAVERY – undecided (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 235, Peacock 1877, p. 199, 1889, p. 423), shaky (Brogden 1866, p. 159, Peacock 1889, p. 423).
QUICKS (Quick) – Lincolnshire term for thorn, young plants for hedges (Good 1973, p. 61, Brogden 1866, p. 159, Peacock 1877, p. 199, 1889, p. 424) WICKS – Yorkshire term for common couch-grass, especially the roots (Morris 1892) or possibly quicksand.


R

RAMPER/RAMP  –  to rush about violently (Elder 1997, p. 182, Peacock 1877, p. 201, 1889, p. 430). or to grow very rapidly (Peacock 1889, p. 429). RAMPER is also the name for the high road, main road, highway (Brogden 1866, p. 162, Peacock 1877, p. 201, 1889, p. 430). RAMMING is the term used for big, fine as used to describe a bairn (Peacock 1877, p. 201, 1889, p. 429).
REETLY/REIGHTLY – certainly, exactly (Peacock 1889, p. 439).
REGLAR/REGULAR – a versatile word to add excellent or good to the following word  (Peacock 1889, p. 438).
ROON/ROOND – near (Elder 1997, p. 186).
RUE – repent (Peacock 1889, p. 449).


S

SAFT/SAFE – sure (Peacock 1877, p. 210, 1889, p. 449).
SARTAIN/SARTAN/SARTIN – certain (Brogden 1866, p. 173, Peacock 1877, p. 213, 1889, p. 457).
SARTAN-SEWER – certain-sure, quite certain (Peacock 1889, p. 457).
SAUNTERING – walking slowly (Good 1973, p. 65).
SCRAMMELL'D/ SCRAWMLED – crawled, scrambled (Peacock 1877, p. 215).
SCRAPE – a mess, difficulty (Peacock 1889, p. 463).
SEED – saw (Elder 1997, p. 44, Good 1973, p. 67, Peacock 1877, p. 217, 1889, p. 467, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 262, Addy 1888, p. 205).
SEN – self (Peacock 1889, p. 469).
SETTLE – a seat (Brogden 1866, p. 178).
SEWER – sure (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 264, Peacock 1877, p. 218,1889, p. 471 Good 1973, p. 67).
SHAKES/SHACKS – the ague (Peacock 1889, p. 472).
SHY – deceitful (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 268).
SHOWTHER/SHOU'THER – shoulder (Peacock 1889, p. 480).
SICH – such (Elder 1997, p. 195).
SIN – since (Elder 1997, p. 196).(Balfour has spelt this as 'syne').
SINGING IRON – could this be a misreading of firing iron – an instrument with which horses are fired (Peacock 1889, p. 205). It could also mean Singeing Iron however BURNING-IRON is the term used in NW Lincolnshire for a branding iron (Peacock 1889, p. 82).
SKIRL/SKIRR/SKIR  – the whirring sound made by the wings of a flock of birds taking off, or for the sound of large birds like swans or herons in flight (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 271, Elder 1997, p. 197, Peacock 1889, p. 489).
SKIRL – to shriek (Peacock 1889, p. 489).
SLITHER – slide (Good 1973, p. 70, Peacock 1877, p. 228, 1889, p. 496).
SNAG – a projecting piece of wood from the root of a tree or post that has been broken off (Peacock 1889, p. 500, Morris 1892). SNAGGY is used in Lincolnshire to refer to trees and hedges with protruding branch ends; badly lopped, and liable to catch or snag, on clothing (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 279, Brogden 1866, p. 188). SNAGGY also means rough (Peacock 1877, p. 230, 1889, p. 501).
SNEEPIT/SNERP – to shrivel and dry out and wither. (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 280).
SNAPE/SNEEP – not right (Brogden 1866, p. 188).
SORE – bad, sorry (Brogden 1866, p. 190)., very bad (Peacock 1877, p. 232, 1889, p. 507).
SOUGH/SOUGHING  –  The noise made by the wind or anything similar to it, blowing through trees (Peacock 1877, p. 233, 1889, p. 508, Morris 1892). SOUGH [soo] “the sighing or moaning of the wind in trees &c” (Addy 1888, p. 229).
SPINNEY – a small plantation or narrow strip of land (Addy 1888, p. 233, Brogden 1866, p. 192), small wood (Peacock 1877, p. 234).
SPUD – a small implement used in cutting thistles (Elder 1997, p. 204, Good 1973, p. 73, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 287, Peacock 1877, p. 235, 1889, p. 514 Sutton 1881, p. 120). a common, broad, ill shaped blade (Addy 1888, p. 235).
STEAD/STEED – instead (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 291, Peacock 1889, p. 521).
STOAN – stone (Peacock 1889, p. 525).
STOPE/STOUP/STOOP – a post (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 293,Elder 1997, p. 208, Addy 1888, p. 241, Brogden 1866, p. 197). STOWP – post (Peacock 1877, p. 241). STOHP – post (Peacock 1889, p. 526).
STOT – Lincolnshire word for stumble (Elder 1997, p. 208).
STOUP  –  A measure for ale, a drinking-cup in Yorkshire (Morris 1892).
STRAANGE – strange (the 'aa' is found in a number of words to denote the elongation of the 'a') (Peacock 1886).
STRONG – great, large (Peacock 1889, p. 531).
STUMMICK – stomach.
STUMMELT  –  stumbled.
SUMMAT/SUMMUT – something (Good 1973, p. 74, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 297 Addy 1888, p. 245, Peacock 1877, p. 245, 1889, p. 536).
SWEER – to swear (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 183).


T

TANTRUM – anger, bad temper (Peacock 1889, p. 551).
TEEM – to empty, to pour out (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 306, Peacock 1877, p. 250, 1889, p. 553, Addy 1888, p. 253).
TELIT/TELL'D/TELLT – told (Good 1973, p. 76, Peacock 1889, p. 555).
THA/THEE  – used in Lincolnshire for thee and thy (Elder 1997, p. 216).
THERSELS/THEIRSELS – Yorkshire pronunciation (Morris 1892, Addy 1888, p. 255). whereas thersens (Good 1973, p. 76) or THEERSENS (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 309) is found in Lincolnshire.
THOFF – though (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 311, Peacock 1877, p. 253), also Yorkshire.
THOU – you (Elder 1997, p. 217).
THOWT – thought (Good 193, p. 76, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 310).
THROFF/THRUF – through (Elder 1997, p. 2, Good 1973, p. 77, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 311, Brogden 1866, p. 207 Peacock 1889, p. 562).
THRONG – busy (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 311, Elder 1997, p. 218, Addy 1888, p. 257, Brogden 1866, p. 207, Peacock 1877, p. 254, 1889, p. 562).
TIDDY – small (Good 1973, p. 77, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 313, Brogden 1866, p. 208).
TODLOWRIES – hobgoblins (Brogden 1866, p. 210).
TO'N/TON – turn (Elder 1997, p. 220, Peacock 1877, p. 257, 1889, p. 570).
TOOMLIN –could be ‘tumbling’ but ‘tumble’ is listed as being pronounced ‘tum’l (Oxley 1941, p. 115).
TOWANST/WONST – once (Oxley 1941, p. 107).
TRACK – a little or unfrequented road across an open common (Elder 1997, p. 221).
TUSSOCKS – tuft of bunch of coarse grass, hassock (Peacock 1877, p. 262, 1889, p. 581,Addy 1888, p. 269).
TWAE/TWEEA – Yorkshire term for two (Morris 1892).
TWINING – twisting (Peacock 1889, p. 582).
TWITTERIN'- nervous, frightened, to tremble (Brogden 1866, p. 215, Peacock 1877, p. 263, 1889, p. 582).


U

UN is used for the negative prefix IN or IM as 'unpossible' or 'unconvenient'
UN– it (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 325).
UNBEKNOWN – not known (Good 1973, p. 79) also pronounced ‘unbeknownst’ Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 325).
UNHAPPED/UNHEPPEN – awkward, clumsy (Brogden 1866, p. 216, Peacock 1877, p. 264, 1889, p. 586, Sutton, p. 122).
USETER/USED TER – did once (Elder 1997, p. 226, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 330, Peacock 1877, p. 265, 1889, p. 590).


W

WAFFY/WAFFLIN'- people who are silly, weak or ineffectual in mind or body (Good 1973, p. 80, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 333, Brogden 1866, p. 219, Peacock 1877, p. 266, 1889, p. 593). In Yorkshire it relates to weakness after an illness (Morris 1892).
WAG – to beckon with the hand or finger – Yorkshire (Morris 1892).
WALL-EYED – either cross-eyed or with eyes of different colours (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 334, Good 1973, p. 81) or squinting (Brogden 1866, p. 220).
WANST/WONST – once (Oxley 1941, p. 107). WONCE (Peacock 1886, p. 60).
WANT is found in the Legends but should be written as 'went' (Peacock 1886).
WARK – work (Peacock 1889, p. 598).
WATTER/WAHTER – water (Good 1973, p. 81, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 336, Peacock 1877, p. 27, Peacock 1889, p. 594) also pronunciation used in Yorkshire (Morris 1892, Addy 1888, p. 277).
WHEER'S – where's (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 340).
WHILE – until (Peacock 1889, p. 608). WHILE – a time, commonly a long time (Peacock 1877, p. 273).
WHISHT – be quiet (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 342, Elder 1997, p. 233, Peacock 1877, p. 274, 1889, p. 609).
WI' 'EM – with them (Peacock 1886, p. 99).
WIDDER MAN/WIDDER WOMAN – common expression from the time when both sexes were known as widows (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 344, Peacock 1889, p. 612).
WILL O' THA WYKES/WILL O' TH' WISP/WILLERBY-WISP is the name for Ignis fatuus, the self-igniting marsh gas that was found in wetland and appeared as small flickering flames on the surface of the water in the Carrs. Also known as PEGGY WI' T' LANTERN (Rudkin 1938, p. 47, Addy 1888, p. 324, Peacock 1889, p. 613).
WINDER/WINDA – window (Elder 1997, p. 253, Peacock 1889, p. 613).
WI'OUT – should be WIVOOT – without (Elder 1997, p. 235).
WOR – were (Good 1973, p. 82, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 348).
WORRIT – to worry (Elder 1997, p. 236).
WUSS/WO'S – worse (Peacock 1889, p. 618).



Y

YALLER/YALLA/YALLOW – yellow (Elder 1997, p. 239, Peacock 1877, p. 278, 1889, p. 620).
YARBS/YERBS – herbs (Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 135, Addy 1888, p. 289).
YARTH/YEARTH earth (Peacock 1877, p. 279, Peacock 1889, p. 188). YETH/YERTH is used in Yorkshire (Morris 1892, Addy 1888, p. 290). YEARTH–
YARTHQUICK – earthquake?
YERSENS is the usual Lincolnshire pronunciation (Elder 1997, p. 240), though Yersels was used in Yorkshire (Morris 1892).
YIT – yet (Elder 1997, p. 240, Addy 1888, p. 290, Peacock 1889, p. 622).
YOND/YON – yonder (Elder 1997, p. 240, Brogden 1866, p. 228, Morris 1892, Peacock 1877, p. 279).
YULE was used to refer to Christmas in Lincolnshire (Good 1973, p. 83, Sims-Kimbrey 1996, p. 358, Peacock 1877, p. 279, 1889, p. 623).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Addy, S O. (1888) A Glossary of words used in the neighbourhood of Sheffield, including a selection of local names, and some notices of folk-lore, games, and customs ... (Supplement) edited by S. O. Addy.
Campion, G E (1976) 'Lincolnshire Dialects'. Richard Kay.
Elder, E (Ed) (1997) ‘The Peacock Lincolnshire Word Books 1884-1920’ Scunthorpe Museum Society
Good, J (1973) 'Glossary of words, phrases, place names, superstitions, &c current in East Lincolnshire'. Pulford: Lincs
Morris, M C F (1892) ‘Yorkshire Folk-Talk’ Online resource
Peacock, E (1877) A Glossary of Words used in the Wapentakes of Manley and Corringham, Lincolnshire. English Dialect Society: Trubner
Peacock, E (1889) A Glossary of Words used in the Wapentakes of Manley and Corringham, Lincolnshire. English Dialect Society: Trubner
Sims-Kimbrey, J M (1996) 'Wodds and Doggerybaw – A Lincolnshire Dialect Dictionary'. Richard Kay: Lincs.
Stennett, A (2006) ‘Nobbut a yellerbelly!’ Countryside Books.
Sutton, E (1881) North Lincolnshire Words - Original Glossary No 26. English Dialect Society: Manchester.